Electric Power Industry of Kazakhstan has the following sectors:
- electricity generation;
- electricity transmission;
- electricity supply;
- electricity consumption;
- other activity in electric power industry.
Electricity Generation Sector
Electricity in Kazakhstan is generated by 128 power plants of various form of ownership. The total installed capacity of power plants in Kazakhstan is 21672,9 MW and available capacity is 18 791,4 MW.
The power plants are branched into power plants of national importance, power plants of industrial importance and those of regional importance.
The power plants of national importance are the large thermal power plants generating and selling electricity to consumers at the electricity wholesale market of Kazakhstan:
- Ekibastuz GRES-1 LLP named after B.G. Nurzhanov;
- Ekibastuz GRES-2 Power Plant JSC;
- Power plant of EEC JSC, ERG, Eurasian Group;
- GRES of Kazakhmys Energy LLP
- Zhambyl GRES JSC named after T.I. Baturov,
- and large hydro power plants used as auxiliary units and to control load schedule profile of Kazakhstan UPS:
- Bukhtarma Hydro Power Complex of Kazzinc LLP
- AES Ust-Kamenogorsk HPP LLP
- AES Shulbinsk HPP LLP
The power plants of industrial importance are the combined heat power plants (CHPP) which supply heat and electric power to large industrial enterprises and nearby populated areas:
- CHPP-3 Karaganda Energocenter LLP;
- CHPP-PVS, CHPP-2 of Arcelor Mittal Temirtau JSC;
- CHPP of SSGPO JSC, ERG, Eurasian Group;
- Balkhash CHPP, Zhezkazgan CHPP of Kazakhmys Energy LLP;
- CHPP-1 of Aluminium of Kazakhstan JSC, ERG, Eurasian Group and others;
The power plants of regional importance are CHPPs integrated with the territories, supplying electricity via the networks of regional electricity network companies and power transmission companies as well as heat supply to the towns nearby.
Electricity Transmission Sector
Electric networks of Kazakhstan is a package of 0.4-1150 kV substations, switchgears and electricity transmission lines connecting them to transmit and (or) distribute electricity.
The backbone grid in Kazakhstan UPS is National Power Grid (NPG)which provide electric connections between the regions of the country and power systems of the neighbouring countries (the Russian Federation, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Uzbekistan) and enable power plants to supply electricity and deliver it to the wholesale consumers. Substations, switchgears, interregional and (or) interconnection electricity lines and electricity lines of 220 kV and higher transmitting electricity from power plants being are a part of the NPG and belong to Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company (KEGOC) JSC.
Electric networks of regional importance provide electric connections inside the regions and deliver electricity to the retail consumers. Electric networks of regional level belongs to and are being operated by the Regional Electric Network Companies (REC).
The power transmission companies provide contract-based electricity transmission services using their own or managed (rent, lease, trust management and other types of use) electric networks for the wholesale and retail consumers or power supplying companies.
Power Supply Sector
The power supply sector in the electricity market of Kazakhstan comprises power supply companies (PSC) which purchase electricity from generators or at the centralized auctions and further sell it to the end retail consumers. Some of PSCs are the «guaranteed supplier» of electricity.
Kazakhstan Electricity Market
Electricity market is divided into wholesale and retail markets; the heating energy market is retail only.
System Operator, regional electric network companies and other entities owning electric networks shall ensure non-discriminatory access to the electricity market for all market players as prescribed by the state authority performing management of the natural monopolies and regulated markets.
Any relations arising out of generation, transmission and consumption at the market of electric or heat power shall be regulated by the relevant contracts in the electric power industry.
The functional design of the wholesale electricity market in Kazakhstan, comprises:
- market of decentralized purchase and sale of electricity (bilateral contracts of electricity purchase and sale);
- centralized electricity market, which is based on purchase and sale of electricity for short-term (spot-trade), mid-term (week, month) and long-term (quarter, year) period;
- real-time balancing market operating for physical and subsequent financial settlement of hourly disbalances arising within the operating day between actual and contractual generation and consumption of electricity in the unified power system of Kazakhstan;
- system and ancillary services market, which serves for the System Operator to render system services and purchase ancillary services at the participants of the electricity market of the Republic of Kazakhstan to ensure the adherence to the established state standards of reliable operation of Kazakhstan UPS and electricity quality.
- capacity market (launching 01 January 2019).
Relations arising between the participants of the wholesale electricity market of Kazakhstan shall be regulated by the civil laws of Kazakhstan, the Rules of organization and functioning of the wholesale electricity market of Kazakhstan, other regulatory legal acts and contracts between the participants of the wholesale electricity market.
Power generating companies generate and sell electricity at the wholesale market of Kazakhstan if they meet the following conditions:
1) they have licenses as required by the laws of Kazakhstan;
2) they have access to the national and(or) regional electric network;
3) they supply at least 1 megawatt (further MW) of electricity of daily average (base) capacity to the wholesale market and have commercial metering systems, telecommunications harmonized with the System Operator's systems.
Power generating companies connected to the national power grid can have access to the national power grid if they contracts with the System Operator:
1) for technical dispatch of generation/consumption of electricity in the Unified Power System of Kazakhstan;
2) for balancing of generation/consumption of electricity in the Unified Power System of Kazakhstan;
The power generating companies connected to the electric networks of the regional electric network companies can have access to the national power grid under if they have contract with the System Operator for rendering by the latter the services on technical dispatch of generation/consumption of electricity in the Unified Power System of Kazakhstan.
Consumers make electricity purchase and sale contracts with the price, volume and supply conditions at the decentralized electricity market in accordance with the Civil Code.
Electricity consumers may participate in the wholesale electricity market if they meet the following conditions:
1) they have access to the national and (or) regional electric network;
2) they purchase at least 1 MW of daily average (base) capacity at the wholesale electricity market and have the commercial metering systems, telecommunication systems harmonized with the systems installed by the System Operator.
The electricity consumers connected to the national power grid can have access to the national power grid if they have contracts with the System Operator:
1) for transmission of electricity via national power grid;
2) for technical dispatch of the imported electricity (in case of electricity import);
3) for balancing of generation/consumption of electricity in the Unified Power System of Kazakhstan;
The electricity consumers connected to the electric networks of the regional electric network companies can have access to the national power grid if they meet the following conditions:
1) contract with the System Operator for transmission of electricity via national power grid;
2) contract with the System Operator for technical dispatch of the imported electricity (in case of electricity import);
3) they have access to the regional electric network.
Power supplying companies can participate at the wholesale electricity market of Kazakhstan if they meet the following conditions:
1) they have license for the right of electricity purchase to supply electricity;
2) they have access to the national and (or) regional electric network;
3) they meet the requirements on supply/consumption of at least 1 MW of daily average (base) capacity from the wholesale electricity market and have commercial metering systems, telecommunication systems harmonized with the main systems installed by the System Operator.
The power generating companies can have access to the national power grid if they meet the following conditions:
1) they have contracts with the System Operator for transmission of electricity via national power grid identifying electricity consumers and (or) for technical dispatch of the imported electricity (in case of electricity import or acquisition of such services) identifying electricity consumers;
2) they have contracts with the System Operator for balancing of electricity generation/consumption in the unified power system of Kazakhstan identifying electricity consumers and/or power generating companies;
3) they have access to the regional electric networks in cases when power supply companies have entities connected to the regional electric network.
The System Operator of Kazakhstan UPS is KEGOC JSC (Order of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan No.61 dated 17 October 2014) and its functions are to:
2) render system services on technical dispatch to perform centralized operational dispatch control of Kazakhstan UPS pursuant to the contract including compilation of actual balances and daily schedule of electricity generation/consumption;
3) ensure the reliable operation of Kazakhstan UPS;
4) render system services on electric capacity regulation;
5) render electricity production-consumption balancing system services;
6) perform financial settlement of electricity imbalances as established by the Laws of Kazakhstan;
7) determine the volume, structure and distribution of capacity reserves among power generating organisations and engagement of capacity reserves in Kazakhstan UPS;
9) interact with power systems of neighbouring states in terms of management and stability of parallel operation modes and regulation of electric capacity;
10) provide technical and methodological guidelines for establishment of a unified information system, automated commercial metering system, interconnected relay protection and emergency control automatics for all participants of the wholesale electricity market;
11) ensure equal access conditions to the national power grid for all wholesale electricity market participants;
12) provide the participants of the wholesale electricity market of Kazakhstan with the information except for any data making a commercial or any other secret protected by the law;
13) coordinate the dates of the repair windows of the primary equipment of power plants, substations, transmission lines, relay protection devices and emergency control automatics, process management systems and ensure their availability;
14) participate in planning of the hydro power plants operation subject to their water economy balances and operational modes of Kazakhstan UPS;
15) develop electricity and capacity balance forecasts;
16) organize the operation of the capacity market.
17) carry out certification of generating units’ electric power;
18) provide information about agreed power delivery designs to the authorized body on a quarterly basis;
19) perform other functions as defined in the present Law and legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan promoting the use of renewable energy sources.
Pursuant to the Law of Kazakhstan 'On Electric Power Industry', the balancing electricity market of Kazakhstan started to work in the simulation mode on 01 January 2008.
Energoinform was assigned the financial centre to support operations of the electricity balancing market pursuant to KEGOC Order No.807 dated 26 December 2007. The centralized dispatch control of Kazakhstan UPS is performed by KEGOC's branch - the National Dispatch Centre of the System Operator - NDC SO. The central operational and dispatch control in Kazakhstan UPS is functioning through the direct operational subordination of nine regional dispatch centres (RDC) being the structural subdivisions of KEGOC branches - Interconnection Electric Networks, to NDC SO.
Centralized trade markets ensure open non-discriminatory access of all participants to the electricity market and generate fair index of the current market electricity price. KOREM JSC (Kazakhstan Operator of Electric Power and Electric Energy) as an Operator of the Centralized Trade Market is responsible for operation of the centralized trade market (Order No.54 dated 04 March 2004 of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources).